This week we’ll be covering refactoring which is a very simple but also very important concept to software design similar to models, the topic I covered last week. The reason why I’ve chosen to talk about refactoring is because while it’s a topic that hasn’t been specifically covered in class; I have had experience learning about a form of refactoring in this software process management class I’ve been taking. According to the link above, refactoring is the process of improving the overall structure of a program’s source code. However, this does not mean that the functions of the program are altered in any way. For example, the interface is not improved on, bugs are not fixed, and code isn’t outright rewritten to change the behavior of the program. Refactoring instead cleans up and organizes the source code in order to be more easily readable and understood. An example of this would be simplifying the two lines “answer = 2 * 5;” and “answer = answer * 8;” into the line “answer = 2 * 5 *8”. This change simplifies the code and makes it easier to understand at a brief glance. On a smaller scale, refactoring can be used to remedy code smells and remove duplication. But on a larger scale, refactoring can alter large bodies of code towards different design styles such as object oriented or functional.

The benefits to refactoring do not end at organization and raising code readability. Refactoring also encourages the use of reusable design elements and code modules. These reusable elements and modules highlight the structural similarities and differences in each code module. Refactoring also improves attributes of code that cause easier maintenance like length, duplication, coupling, cohesion, and cyclomatic complexity. Since refactoring often simplifies source code, the length and complexity are also often times lowered which again makes code easier to read. In order to efficiently refactor code, the dependencies (cohesion) and independencies (coupling) of each module will have to be highlighted in the overall structure of the code. And in the case of duplication, it has already been stated that refactoring can remove it from source code. All of these benefits return back to the intended purpose of refactoring, improving the overall structure of a program’s source code by cleaning and organizing it. It’s a form of proofreading and revising code but also comes at the risk of accidentally changing the behavior of a program. So individuals using refactoring should have a good grasp on which part of their code does what in order to avoid that issue.

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